“Strive for balance. Then shall you find harmony.”
In my last post, I discussed strategies you can use for running in the heat.
Another important consideration, when running in the heat, is replacement of electrolytes.
What Are Electrolytes And Why Are They Important?
An electrolyte is a substance that will conduct electricity when dissolved in water. They are essential for many of the body’s functions such as:
- Skeletal muscle contraction for you to run (specifically the muscle needs calcium, sodium, and potassium and when these become unbalanced this can lead to muscle weakness or excessive contraction)
- Heart function to deliver the oxygen and nutrients to your muscles to produce the energy you need to run
- Nervous system function
- Fluid balance
- Blood pressure regulation
- Maintain proper blood pH
All important functions necessary to keep you alive!
An imbalance of electrolytes through loss can result in cramping, twitching, weakness, and if not addressed, seizures and heart rhythm disturbances.
The important electrolytes include: sodium, potassium, calcium, bicarbonate, magnesium, phosphate, and chloride.
How Are They Lost?
Electrolytes are lost in sweat when we run. They can also be lost during a bout of diarrhea or vomiting.
How Should You Replace Them?
There are a number of different options for replacing electrolytes lost during exercise. Since balance between different electrolytes is important for them to function properly, I don’t recommend taking something that replaces only one or two electrolytes, like salt tablets.
Also, I don’t recommend many of the popular sports drinks including: Gatorade, Powerade, Propel, Vitamin Water, Accelerade because they usually contain lots of sugar/high fructose corn syrup and artificial ingredients, which can upset your stomach.
Here are some sources of electrolytes you might try (disclaimer: I have no affiliations with or investments in any of the companies that produce these products):
Tailwind nutrition endurance fuel
Lyteshow liquid concentrate
Ultima replenisher mix
Optimal Electrolyte by Seeking Health
Vega Clean Energy
Skratch labs mix
Coconut water in the refrigerated section of the grocery story by any of the following brands: Harmless Harvest, Unoco, Liquitera, Vital Juice or Juice Press
Another option is to make your own using by combining the following:
- ¼ tsp sea salt
- ¼ cup of lemon juice
- ¼ cup of lime juice
- 1 ½ cups of unsweetened coconut water
- 2 cups of cold water
I recommend experimenting with at least a couple of these during your training to find the one that works best for you to use for your event.
The amount of electrolytes you will need to take depend on several factors including: the temperature, humidity, your sweat rate, as well as your initial levels of electrolytes. The recommendations for electrolyte replacement typically focus on sodium. Typically, it is recommended to replace 500-1000 mg/hr of sodium for long runs and events, such as half- and full-marathons, as well as ultras and triathlons. However, you may need to adjust this depending on sweat loss. And remember, you will also be taking other electrolytes, along with sodium, to stay balanced.
You should continue to consume electrolytes after your long run or event (~500 mg sodium, along with other electrolytes).
In addition, it is important to include a variety of fruits and vegetables in your diet because they are a great source of electrolytes.
Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.
Your friend and coach,
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Bob Seebohar “Nutrition for Triathletes” presented at USAT Certification Training 2014
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Electrolytes panel – blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:464-467.
DuBose TD. Disorders of acid-base balance. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Taal MW, Yu ASL, eds. Brenner and Rector’s The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17.