Brian’s Blog

Simple Cues To Help You Optimize Your Running Form To Run Faster and Help Avoid Injury

 

Hello Runnerrunning form image 2s,

In the last blog, I discussed the key aspects of optimal running form, especially in relation to body position, feet, arm swing, hip extension, and rhythm or cadence. In this post, I will share simple cues that you can use in order to help improve your running form in these areas. It is best to focus on only one or two of these at a time, for a few weeks, until they start becoming automatic, and then you can move on to another cue. Also, I recommend focusing on this cue for 10-20 seconds every 5-10 minutes, otherwise you will most likely be mentally exhausted at the end of your run, especially a long run! Another possibility is to focus on a cue while you are performing strides. If you are not familiar with strides click here to learn what they are and how they are beneficial.

So, here are a few cues to help you optimize your running form:

  • “Run tall”
    • Helps you engage your core, thus improving running posture, and also helps with hip extension, so that you can generate more power during your stride
  • “Imagine someone in front of you grabbing you by your shirt and lifting you up at the chest”
    • Similar to “Run tall” in that it forces you to engage the core
    • I like this cue better because it can also help with forward lean and helps prevent overstriding
  • “Extend the hips”
    • Focus on extending the hips when the knee is at its highest point until impact with the ground
    • Increases power, and thus speed, as the glutes are activated, and will create a recoil or rebound force with the ground, thus generating passive energy to propel you forward– hip extension, increases power of stride and thus speed
  • “Watch the horizon and try to limit it to a slight bounce”
    • Helps you create the right angle to propel yourself forward, so you are not moving too vertical or too horizontal
    • Helps you avoid contacting the ground too long and being too bouncy (up-and-down) with your stride
  • “Hip-to-Nip”
    • Stimulates arm swing, which facilitates coordination between the arm and opposite leg
    • Helps improve cadence and thus, running speed
  • “Think of knees as headlights that you shine straight ahead”
    • Helps engage and open hips to minimize risk of several common injuries including plantar fasciitis, IT band syndrome, patellofemoral syndrome (knee pain), which results from inward collapse of hips, knees, and ankles
  • “Put your foot down underneath you”
    • Helps prevents overstriding
  • “Leave the ankle/foot alone”
    • Helps minimize the loss of energy caused when activating the muscles of the lower leg and hamstrings
    • Activating these muscles can increase risk of injury
  • “Lean from the ankles”
    • Helps facilitate appropriate forward lean, which can improve speed

The key is to make gradual changes and to prepare for alterations in form by conditioning the body, which will be discussed in future posts.

I offer running evaluations to assess running form and can help you identify the cues that would be most beneficial to improve your running form.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

References

Cindy Kuzma. “Hips”. Sports Medicine Clinic, Boulder, CO, February 2015.

Road Runners Club of America Certification boulder, CO, May 2013.

Steve Magness. Science of Running. Origin Press, 2014.

 

Keys To Optimal Running Form

running form image

Hello Runners,

When I see other runners, I can’t help but notice their running form. In my head I will say things like, “They should relax their shoulders”, “They should swing their arms”, “They should use their hips more, so they get knee lift and aren’t shuffling their feet.”

Running form is critical to optimize your running performance and help minimize the risk of injury. This article is the first of a series of articles related to running form and how to improve it.

So how should you run? I’ve listened to and read advice from different running coaches, exercise physiologists, and biomechansists. I’ve implemented these recommendations myself, and I wanted to share with you what I have found to be the most important aspects of efficient running form.

Here are the key aspects to running form:

  • Body position
    • Your body should be upright, thus requiring you to engage the core muscles. You should think of “running tall.” To help increase your speed you should have a slight forward lean from the ankles. It is important that this lean not come from the waist.
    • Your head, face, shoulders, and arms should be relaxed.
    • You should look ahead on the horizon with you chin slightly tipped down
  • Feet
    • As soon as your knee comes forward put your foot down underneath you. You should land slightly on the outer portion of the foot and ideally land on your midfoot, close to the center of your body.
    • As you land, the ankle should be in the neutral position, not in a flexed or extended (pointed toes) position.
    • Allow the heel to settle on the ground.
    • Push the big toe down allowing it to act as a locking mechanism before the foot leaves the ground, ensuring the foot acts as one entire unit. Do not try to get any extra propulsion by pushing off with the toes consciously. Instead, forward propulsion should come from hip extension (see below), and the foot should just be along for the ride.
    • Allow the foot to come up off the ground on its own, don’t actively contract the calves or hamstrings to pull the foot up towards the buttocks.
  • Arm swing
    • The arms and legs should work together in a coordinated fashion. When the left leg is forward, the right arm should be forward and vice versa. When the arm stops moving forward and is about to reverse direction, the opposite leg should reach its maximum backward movement before switching directions and coming forward, the opposite leg and hip should be at their maximum extension backwards
    • Your shoulders should be relaxed. Your arms should be bent at the elbow to form an angle of slightly less than 90 degrees between your forearm and upper arm. Have your hands lightly cupped like you were holding a fragile object that you didn’t want to drop, but that you didn’t want to crush.
    • The arm swing occurs from the shoulders, so that the shoulders don’t turn or sway. It is a simple pendulum-like forward and backward motion without crossing of the arms in front of the body.
    • Swing the arms so that the hands brush the top of the hips on the backswing and then swing them forward to the nipple line or slightly above.
  • Hip extension
    • Your power comes from extending the hips. Think of the hips as pistons that move up and down.
    • Focus on extending the hip and then leave it alone until you would extend it again. Do not actively contract the hip and/or hamstrings to bring the foot up behind you. This is a waste of energy. Allow the elastic energy you generated by extending the hip and impacting the ground automatically bring the foot up and forward.
    • Once the hip is extended, the recovery phase starts. The recovery cycle of the leg will happen automatically. The lower leg will lift off the ground and fold so that it comes close to your buttocks then pass under your hips with the knee leading. Once the knee has led through, the lower leg will unfold and it is then runner’s job to put it down underneath them. Ideal landing is close to the center of your body and directly underneath the knee. Don’t try to actively move the leg through the recovery phase, this is a waste of energy and slows the recovery phase cycle.
    • How close the lower leg comes to the buttocks depends on the amount of hip extension. Ideally, the closer the leg comes to the buttocks the better because the leg will cycle through the recovery phase faster.
  • Rhythm
    • Control your rhythm (or cadence) and speed through arm swing and hip extension.
    • Your cadence should be between 160-200 steps per minute.
    • Breathing rhythmically

In the next post, I will discuss cues you can use to make any needed changes to your running mechanics.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can help in any way.

I do offer running evaluations to assess running form. Please let me know if you are interested or would like more information.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

 

References

Adam St. Pierre. Running Mechanics presented at USA Triathlon Certification Training, 2015.

Ben Greenfield. Beyond Training. Victory Belt Publishing, Inc. 2014.

Jack Daniels Daniels’ Running Formula Second Edition. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 2005.

Jay Dicharry. Anatomy of Running.

Road Runners Club of America Coaching Certification Course

Steve Magness. The Science of Running. Origin Press, 2014.

USAT Training DVD Series. The Run with Bobbie McGee.

How To Develop and Implement Habits That Can Help You Lose Weight

“When nothing seems to help, I go and look at a stonecutter hammering away at this rock, perhaps a hundred times without as much as a crack showing in it. Yet at the hundred and first blow it will split in two, and I know it was not that last blow that did it – but all that had gone before.” – Jacob Riis (social reformer)

Happy New Year!

Each year approximately 40 percent of Americans make New Year’s resolutions. One of the most popular resolutions is to lose weight. Unfortunately, by the time February arrives most have quit their resolution, and will probably make the same resolution next January. In fact, only about 20 percent of those who set New Year’s resolutions have stuck with them by the end of the year.

Why are so few in successfully following through with their resolutions? Most likely they didn’t develop the proper behaviors and habits necessary to be successful. Yes, goals or resolutions are important and provide direction, however it’s the systems and habits that we develop that are most important to our success.

I recently finished reading James Clear’s Atomic Habits, which I highly recommend. He shares some valuable insight on how to develop good habits and eliminate bad ones. In this article, I will touch upon a few that might help you get started in developing the habits you need to lose weight, or in achieving any other New Year’s resolution that you made.

Identity Focus

On important key to your success in losing weight, or any other goal or resolution that you have set for yourself, is creating an identity for yourself consistent with this goal or resolution. Then focus on becoming the person consistent with that identity, instead of fixating on a goal or resolution. Thus, instead of focusing on losing X pounds of weight, you might shift your mindset and identity to becoming a “healthy person.” Once you have identified that you are a healthy person, it can become easier to develop the habits consistent with becoming a healthy person, and in the process you will automatically lose weight and feel better.

With your new identity you can now ask yourself, “What would a healthy person do in this situation?” or “What do I need to do in this situation, as a healthy person?” You will then simply act like the type of person you already believe yourself to be. The process of building habits is really the process of becoming yourself.

This can help you avoid the “yo-yo” diet effect that many who try to lose weight experience. In this case, people focus on the goal of losing weight and not developing the identity and habits necessary for sustainable weight loss.

Awareness of Current Habits

The process of behavior change always begins with awareness. Therefore, it would be beneficial to list all of you daily habits. This would include things like brushing your teeth, showering, etc. Then ask yourself, “Does this behavior help me become the type of person I wish to be? Is this habit consistent with the identity I have of myself as a healthy person?” Then be on the lookout for unsupportive habits and verbalize this habit when it occurs, as well as what the outcome will be if you allow the habit to continue. For example, “It’s two o’clock in the afternoon and I’m reaching for that candy bar, like I always do at this time. I know if I eat it, I will feel satisfied for a few moments, but later will feel tired and feel bad that I ate the candy bar and start eating chips.”  You might begin replacing this with, “At two o’clock I will eat an apple.”

Design You Environment To Support You Being a Healthy Person

Your environment can provide cues that trigger your habits. So, it is important to design your environment to support that habits you want in your life and eliminate those you don’t want. Such examples would include: eliminating foods that don’t support you being a healthy person, such as candy, chips, cookies, etc. from your house or at least removing them from view. Instead, have healthier food choices in view, like a bowl of fruit on the kitchen table. Another example would be to have your workout clothes, shoes, and water bottle ready and in view the night before, so when you wake up, you just put them on and start exercising; no thought or significant effort necessary.

Start Small and Include an Appropriate Reward System Until the Habits Are Automatic

The great thing about building effective habits and behaviors is that you can start with small steps. For example, eating dinner on a smaller plate, so the portion sizes you eat are smaller. You might also start drinking more water and develop the habit of having your water bottle with you at all times, and drink a little more each day. Or, start walking 5 minutes a day, and maybe add 30-60 seconds every couple of days. Make walking enjoyable by doing this with a friend, with family, or your favorite music. The great thing about small habits is they have a compounding effect when performed daily; a one percent change daily leads to being 37 times better at the end of the year! This is the same extraordinary compounding effect that occurs when you invest in mutual funds. As a result, you can build momentum begin developing other good habits that can support you being a healthy person. The key is to start with small habits that are easy to do and which you could do on a consistent basis.

In addition, it can be helpful to set up a reward system, so if you walk at least 5 minutes a day 5-7 days per week you reward yourself appropriately, such as getting a massage or going to the movies. It’s important that these rewards are in the short-term because we are hardwired for immediate gratification. Weight loss is challenging because it can take months, or even years, to see significant weight loss, and this can be demotivating because you are not being rewarded for your efforts until months or years. Thus, it’s important to acknowledge and reward the small wins along the way.

You will most likely find that the small habits you begin become automatic over time, and you can then incorporate other habits that can help you become a healthy person, and then shift your reward system to these new habits.

Give Yourself the Gift of Movement

First, view all movement as beneficial; it doesn’t have to be structured exercise at the gym or performed for at least 20 or 30 minutes at a time. Second, change your mindset on movement from “have to” to “get to”. Start associating movement as a gift you give yourself. In addition to the gift of health you are giving yourself, you also give yourself the opportunity to spend time with a friend or your family on a walk, or walk by yourself in a favorite place or listen to your favorite music while walking. Giving this gift to yourself will allow you to better show up for loved ones in your life because you will be happier and more energized.

 

There are many other habits and tips that can be beneficial for weight loss. Many more than I can fit in one blog article, but I do want to leave you with a few more habits and tips that might help. Weight loss is complex and therefore it can be easier to identify as being a healthy person and develop habits consistent with this identity. I will share more tips in future articles.

Other Habits That May Help

  • Eat on smaller plates to reduce portion sizes and calorie consumption
  • Put vegetables on your plate first and they should fill up at least half of your plate
  • Chop up fruits and vegetables on the weekends and pack into containers, so you have easy access to them during the week
  • Purchase food in individual packages rather than bulk size
  • When eating out have the waiter box up half of your meal before you receive it, so you only eat half the portion size
  • Get at 7-9 hours of quality sleep each night

Other Tips

  • It’s better to do less than nothing at all, for example with movement
  • Keep a scoreboard of the good habits you have performed
  • Never miss a good habit more than once, simply do something (such as walking one minute instead of 5 minutes)
  • Acknowledge and appreciate the nonscale victories of living healthier such as skin looking better, waking up earlier, having greater sex drive
  • Have someone who will hold you accountable

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

Note: I am not promoting any specific diet for weight loss. In fact, I feel this one-size fits all approach does not work. You should consult with your physician before starting any weight loss program.

References:

James Clear. Atomic Habits: An Easy and Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones. Avery: New York, 2018.

Michelle Segar. No Sweat: How the Simple Science of Motivation Can Bring You a Lifetime of Fitness. AMACOM, 2015.

Goals Set the Direction, But Habits Are Best For Becoming The Runner You Want to Become

“When nothing seems to help, I go and look at a stonecutter hammering away at this rock, perhaps a hundred times without as much as a crack showing in it. Yet at the hundred and first blow it will split in two, and I know it was not that last blow that did it – but all that had gone before.” – Jacob Riis (social reformer)

Happy New Year Runners!

Each year approximately 40 percent of Americans make New Year’s resolutions. Unfortunately, by the time February arrives most have quit, and will probably make the same resolution next January. Why weren’t they successful? Most likely they didn’t develop the proper behaviors and habits necessary to be successful. Yes, goals are important and provide direction, however it’s the systems and habits that we develop, that are most important to our success.

I recently finished reading James Clear’s Atomic Habits, which I highly recommend. He shares some valuable insight on how to develop good habits, and eliminate bad ones. In this article, I will touch upon a few insights that might help you get started in developing the habits you need to become a better runner and achieve your running goals.

Goals are helpful in that they provide us direction. Such as if we were flying from Los Angeles to Maui, it is helpful to know which direction we need to go. However, if we set a course starting from Los Angeles to land in Maui we would not arrive, if we did not make adjustments along the way. Similar with our running goals. We may have a goal of completing our first marathon, or breaking four hours, or qualifying for Boston, however if we don’t develop the proper plan, get in the runs and support work (dynamic warmup, cool down, strengthening exercises, and cross-training) and develop other important habits, we’ll not optimize our training. Instead, we may develop an injury and we won’t develop the endurance and/or speed necessary to achieve our goal.

Take Small Steps with a System-Focused Approach, Instead of Goal-Focused

One important principle from Atomic Habits is developing systems that set you up to become the person necessary to achieve whatever goals you set for yourself. Thus, to become a better runner such things as: proper training and nutrition plans, running form, support work, sleep, and hydration are important. If these are implemented on a consistent basis, incremental progress will be made leading to improved running performance, which then lead to better race results.

One of my favorite coaches of all time is the late Coach John Wooden, who had his players focus on making some small improvement each day that would help improve their game. These small improvements compound over time, like when you invest in mutual funds. Wooden put the emphasis on improvement and not on winning basketball games and national championships. As a result, some of Wooden’s players became some of the best basketball players in history (Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Bill Walton), and his teams won ten national championships, including seven in a row.

It is interesting to note that Wooden did not win his first national championship until he had been coaching at UCLA for 16 years! So, it took him a while to develop and successfully implement a system that would maximize his players’ performance, as well as his own coaching abilities. Similarly, if you are growing bamboo. It takes a significant amount of time for a bamboo plant to lay down an extensive root system. Then, all of sudden, a whole bunch of bamboo appears!

A systems-first mentality also allows you to fall in love with the process rather than the product/goal and you don’t have to wait to give yourself permission to be happy. You can be satisfied anytime your system is running. This is important because we are hardwired for immediate gratification. The goal-first mentality forces us to delay gratification until the next milestone is reached. The goal-first mentality also creates an “either-or” conflict in which you are either successful or a failure. Also, a goal-oriented mindset can create a “yo-yo” effect, which once the goal is achieved, you revert back to old habits. This is common with those trying to achieve weight loss.

So, it can be more beneficial to focus on what you want to become, instead of what you want to achieve, and develop the habits or systems to do so. If instead of waiting until we achieve our goal, we can achieve satisfaction in performing the steps along the way, we will be much happier and are more likely to make good habits automatic. Early on we may want to set up a rewards system for when we are completing the habits that we need to become the runner we need to become. Therefore, if we complete our run and the important support work, then we reward ourselves appropriately. For example, I reward myself with ten minutes of additional guitar-playing time. Over time you may not need the reward system because you automatically include support work on your run days.

So, again even though your goals will direct you, what’s most importance is the system you implement to become the runner necessary to achieve those goals. If you develop the habits and put in the work, the results will follow, just as they did for Coach Wooden.

 Identity Focus

Another important aspect of Atomic Habits is to become identity-focused, instead of goal-focused. Your habits are consistent with the identity you have for yourself. So, in order to change your habits, you have to change your identity. For example, if someone is trying to lose weight, they could change their identity to that of a healthy person, instead of focusing on losing a certain number of pounds. They can then focus on making decisions consistent with what a healthy person does, and could ask themselves, “What would a healthy person do in this situation?”

Similarly, if you have a time goal and/or want to be a Boston qualifier, your identity could be I’m a “sub-3:45 marathoner” or a “Boston qualifier” and put your focus on the habits necessary or consistent with being a “sub-3:45 marathoner” or “Boston qualifier”. You can then ask yourself, “Who is the type of person that would get these results?” Therefore, you would begin developing the sleep habits (such as 7-9 hours of sleep per night, because while you are sleeping the important adaptations to your training are occurring), nutrition habits (proper nutrients to fuel you and support adaptations), and support work habits necessary. You may also determine that it is necessary to work with a coach, so that you optimize your running form for performance and have an optimal training plan.  You may also need to develop the mind-set of focusing on improving as a runner from year-to-year, and appreciate that it may take a couple of years to break 3:45 in a marathon, or qualify for Boston.

Habit Stacking and Designing Your Environment

Techniques such as habit stacking and designing your environment (make it obvious) may help you facilitate the habits consistent with your identity of being a “sub-3:45 marathoner”, for example. After my runs I grab a glass of water to begin hydrating and focus on “relaxing my legs” by doing gentle leg swings, gradually increasing the range of motion. I perform these close to our designated workout room, which has my yoga mat, resistance band, dumbbells, foam roller, and lacrosse ball all laid out in full view (designing my environment). This cues me to perform the rest of my support work, including my strengthening exercises and cool down (habit stacking). Also, I usually play music I enjoy while performing these, which makes it easier to perform. I’ve performed this routine so many times that it has become automatic, and I recommend setting up a similar situation for yourself.

I will touch upon other important principles from Atomic Habits and other behavior change strategies in future blogs, to help you become the runner you want to become and help you achieve your goals along the way.

Summary of Key Points

  • Success is the product of daily habits
  • Goals are about the results you want to achieve. Systems are about the processes that lead to those results
  • Identity the person you want to become and develop the habits consistent with that identity
  • Consistency of habits is important. Start small and implement a proper reward system for immediate gratification once you’ve completed these habits. These habits should soon become automatic.
  • Focus on improvement over time, such as year-to-year, as a runner, not just a one-time goal

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help.

I don’t want to leave you with the idea that goals aren’t important. They have their place, as far as providing direction. Also, there are other steps you should take before beginning your training. Click here for a post from last year on goal setting and here to learn of other steps you should take before you begin training.

Also, it’s not too late to get started on training, if you are planning to run a spring half- or full-marathon. I began my formal training for the Colfax marathon last week.

Finally, I plan to lead a half- and full-marathon training group this year for fall half- and full-marathons. The group will meet once per week in Louisville (CO) for a run, and participants will be provided with a 16-week training plan. If you are interested, or would like to learn more, please contact me at brian@denverrunningcoach.com

Your friend and coach,

Brian

References

James Clear. Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones.  Avery: New York, 2018.

What Should You Do If You Didn’t Achieve Your Running Goal(s) This Year?

runningfailure

“Only those who dare to fail greatly can ever achieve greatly.” – Robert F. Kennedy

Hello Runners,

If you have run your event(s) for the year, or will do so soon, I recommend that you take some time off from running after your event(s) are done. In fact, I recommend taking at least two weeks and as many as five weeks off. I would not recommend taking more than five weeks because you will lose a significant amount of fitness that you trained so hard to gain this year!

However, physically and mentally, your body can benefit from some time off from running. This might be a great time to reconnect with family and friends, or do some other activities you wanted to do, but didn’t have time for while training. Recently, I chatted with my brother, who lives in California, for about three hours. I chat with him every other week, however it’s often after my long runs and is usually for no more than an hour. I’ve also made more time to play guitar, which has been a lot of fun!

I hope that your season was successful and that you achieved your running goals for this year. However, if you didn’t achieve them, don’t get discouraged. Recently, I’ve been reading Angela Duckworth’s book Grit, which discusses the power of passion and perseverance and thus, seems relevant to this post.

This year I did not achieve my goal of breaking three hours in the marathon, but I’m not going to give up! Instead, I will reflect upon what worked and what didn’t work and learn from this, as I prepare for my next attempt. I think back to how it took me a few marathons to break 3:15, and how many days I looked at that goal on my refrigerator door. However, I persevered and not only broke 3:15, but once I did, I said to myself, I can train better and break three hours.

So, if you didn’t achieve your running goals for this year, don’t get discouraged for long. Instead, take a few minutes to reflect about the following…

What worked this year for you? What were your successes?

Were you more consistent with your training, speed work, warmups, strengthening exercises, stretching and foam rolling?

Did you explore some new areas with your runs, meet some new people that you ran with?

Were you better with your hydration and fueling during long runs and/or your event?

Were you making food choices that helped you better optimize your running performance?

I was happy with my training consistency and most of my speed workouts this year, although I could have done more speed work. I explored some new areas with my long runs, which made them more enjoyable! For most of this past year I was consistent with my training and noticed significant improvements in my core strength. I got to run with a friend on a consistent basis, which also made training more enjoyable.

What didn’t work and could be improved upon? If you could go back and change anything in your training, what you did during race week, the morning before your event, during the event itself, what would you change?

Were you set back by any injuries?

Was your training plan not appropriate for your goals, fitness level, and time you had available for training?

Did you not make hydration and nutrition a priority and this held you back?

Did life get in the way of your training at any point? 

As my training progressed, I was not as consistent with my strengthening exercises and foam/lacrosse ball rolling and stretching. This most likely contributed to some plantar fasciitis that developed. Fortunately, I addressed this quickly, and as a result, I only had to take minimal time off from running. However, this was a reminder that I needed to be more consistent with my strengthening exercises and foam/lacrosse ball rolling and stretching. I will prioritize these more next year, and either wake up earlier or perform these during the day.

I also had to cut a few speed workouts short because I ran out of time and will need to plan better for them next year.

Finally, I had an unexpected family matter that I need to go back to New York for, which occurred when my marathon was, so I missed it. At that point, I felt my body and mind needed a break from training and decided not to jump into another marathon shortly afterwards. However, I got in a solid year of training, took a couple of weeks off from running, and have resumed training again for an early spring marathon.  

So, take some time off from running to enjoy other aspects of life and take some time to reflect on your running for this past year. Again, if things didn’t go as well as you had hoped, think about what did go well, and continue doing that, and also think about what didn’t go well and how you might change it.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

P.S. If you know anyone who might benefit from this post, please share this with them. Also, if this was beneficial, please “Like” our page. Thank you.

Avoid Stress on Race Day, What You Should Do The Night Before and On Race Day

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Hello Runners,

In the last two posts, I discussed what to consume the night before and morning of your event.

In this post, I will talk more about your preparation the night before and morning of your marathon, as well as what to pack if you are traveling for a marathon.

Packing list for travel to marathon, don’t forget these items if your marathon is not local:

  • Running shoes
  • Race outfit (shirt[s], shorts/pants, socks, sports bra)
  • Throwaway shirt (if it’ll be cold when the race starts, but you don’t expect to need extra layers the whole time)
  • Disposable poncho
  • A jacket, sweatpants, and anything else to keep warm before the start that you can hand off to someone (a garbage bag works and has the added advantage of being a portable privacy stall if you need to pee and the line is too long, which it will be)
  • Hat or headband
  • Gloves
  • Any compression gear, braces, or straps that you wear
  • Watch
  • Sunglasses
  • Sunscreen
  • Chapstick
  • Band-Aids if you use them
  • Plastic baggies to store different foods, tablets, etc.
  • Anti-chafing lubricant
  • Anti-blister powder
  • Fuel belt or other bottles/pouches
  • Race packet (unless you’ll pick it up at the expo)
  • Whatever food you plan to eat before, during, or after that you might not be able to find at the expo or a grocery store (specific types of gels, sports drink, electrolyte tablets, for example)
  • Extra running clothes (if you plan to do any light running in the days before the race)
  • Headlamp (probably not needed for most road races)
  • Tissues or toilet paper, for emergencies
  • Maps, race information, and anything else that needs to be printed if you won’t have access to a printer
  • Marker or tape (if you want to write your name on your body or clothes so spectators can yell it)
  • GPS device if your spectators will need it (many roads may be closed, so it can come in handy)
  • Camera

The day and night before your marathon

  • Attend to race details in advance to limit unnecessary stress on race day
  • Have a plan A, B, and C in place before the race
  • Study the course so you know where the hills, etc. are. If it’s a local race run sections of the route periodically during training. Check website and videos of the course
  • If you will have family and/or friends as spectators, put someone else in charge of where they will be on the course, so you can focus on the race. Ideally, if someone can meet you at mile 17 with a fresh shirt you can feel fresh for the last third of the race

Travel

  • You should arrive at least one day before the race, if the race is out of town
  • Even if race is local, you might consider getting a hotel room near the start line
  • If you stay at home, consider having someone dropping you off, so you don’t need to worry about traffic and parking

Race Expo

  • Avoid spending any length of time on your feet at the expo. Get your race packet and get out!
  • If you can go to the expo 2 days before on lunch break do so
  • If can’t make it to the expo until the day before the event, go as early as possible to avoid crowds and get out so you can rest

Before Bed

  • Make sure your bag is packed and ready to go
  • Make sure timing chip is fastened to shoe laces or pinned to your shirt or belt
  • Have your clothes laid out
  • Have your water bottles full

The morning of your event

  • Ideally, wake up at least three hours before your race and consume your pre-race meal
  • As a general rule, you want to arrive at your race about an hour before it starts so that you can do whatever you need to do (eating, warming up, standing in line for the Porta Pot). Take into account whether there’s a long walk from the parking lot to the start line, which there sometimes is, road closures, and whether there might be a lot of traffic driving into the race. As a rule, public transportation is a far less stressful option than driving, if your race is in an area that offers it.
  • In the hour before the race you may want to consume an energy gel (if have practiced with it during training) and sip fluids
  • Check the weather before and during the event and consider the layers you may need before the start that you might shed. For layers you will shed, wear something that you are willing to throw away
  • Be calm before the start and approach the race with “cautious confidence”. Remember you trained well for this day!

What To Bring To the Race

  • You’ll want to dedicate a bag or two for things that you’ll bring with you to the race. Some you’ll carry with you while you run; others you’ll leave with your spectators or put in the bag drop that most every race has. (If you’re going to do the bag-drop option, make sure you bring whatever sticker or identifying tag you need from your race packet.)
  • Here’s a list of things to pack in your race bag (or wear):
    • Race number and safety pins (I’d recommend pinning it on before you get to the race. Don’t forget to write your emergency contact information on it.)
    • Timing chip
    • Extra clothing to keep warm before the race
    • A garbage bag (for warmth, rain protection, and an emergency bathroom stall if the lines are long)
    • Gloves and hat or headband
    • Compression gear and any straps or braces you wear
    • Something warm to wear after the race (could be the same as what you wore before the race)
    • A throwaway shirt to wear if it’s cold for the first few miles of the race
    • Food or drinks you need before the race
    • Any food you plan on eating during the race that won’t be provided by aid stations. This includes:
      • Gels or gummies (most races provide them at at least one aid station)
      • Sports drink (with bottles) if you don’t like what the race offers
      • Electrolytes
    • A few dollars for buying food/beer/soda/whatever after the race (a lot of times you need cash)
    • A sandwich or something else substantial to eat after the race (it might be hard to buy what you need afterward)
    • Anti-blister powder
    • Anti-chafe lubricant
    • Race packet (just in case there’s something in there that you didn’t realized you’d need)
    • Course map (for your spectators)
    • Camera (you probably won’t want to carry it, so give it to your spectators)
    • Cell phone (I wouldn’t recommend carrying it unless it really doesn’t bother you)
    • Watch
    • Sunglasses
    • Sunscreen
    • Chapstick
    • Band-Aids, if you use them
    • Headlamp
    • Tissues or toilet paper 

So, avoid unnecessary stress on race day and plan accordingly.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

P.S. If you know anyone who might benefit from this post, please share this with them. Also, if this was beneficial, please “Like” our page. Thank you.

 

References

Luke Humphrey with Ketih & Kevin Hanson. Hansons Marathon Method. Velopress, Boulder, CO, 2012.

Matt Fitzgerald . Marathon Roadmap The Plant-Based Guide To Conquering Your First 26.2.

What Should You Eat and What Should You Avoid In the Hours Leading Up To Your Event

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Hello Runners,

In the last post, I discussed the importance of a hydration and nutrition strategy for your event, and offered some tips. I also discussed what to eat the week of your event, including the day before. In this post I will discuss what to eat the morning of your event, including foods to avoid.

The principles to follow during the hours before the start of the race

  • In the two to four hours before your race, eat a meal with some protein and simple carbohydrates, and drink lots of water or sports drink. The more time until the race, the larger this meal should be. Minimize fiber and fats, since they can cause digestion issues. So, if you’re going to eat something like a bagel or toast, this is one time when you should go with white over wheat. Most importantly, don’t try anything new on race day!
  • Some good pre-race foods: gluten-free bread and/or cereal, fruit, smoothie, almond butter (not too much though). The more liquid and easier-to-digest these foods are, the better.-
  • In the hour before the race, don’t eat very much. Most experts recommend only water, sports drink, or energy gels at this point. I personally don’t drink much at this stage, to avoid having to use the bathroom during the race. Standing in the start corral already having to pee is no good, as this causes unnecessary stress and Porta Pots at the early aid stations will be jammed.

What to avoid before and during your event

  • Sports drinks or solids that include fructose or malodextrin, these can cause gas, bloating, and GI distress. Also avoid wheat, dairy, and fermentable fruits, including apples and pears before your event.
  • Artificial sweeteners and other chemicals including sugar alcohols, sucralose, aspartame, acesulfame potassium
  • Large amounts of caffeine
  • Large amounts of fiber

What to eat before your event

  • Blended and juiced foods
  • Small amounts of caffeine – in research studies caffeine shown to improve endurance performance
  • Easy-to-digest carbohydrates including white potato, sweet potato, yam, white rice
  • Easy-to-digest fats including MCT oil and coconut oil
  • Easy-to-digest proteins such as vegan protein (pea, rice, or hemp containing digestive enzymes), essential amino acids, or hydrolyzed collagen protein

In a future post, I will introduce future considerations as far as nutrition for your next event. These can help you better utilize fats more and spare the limited amount of carbohydrates you have available. Thus, reducing fatigue and enhancing performance.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

P.S. If you know anyone who might benefit from this post, please share this with them. Also, if this was beneficial, please “Like” our page. Thank you.

References

Bob Seebohar “Triathlon Nutritional Strategies” USA Triathlon Level I Coaching Certification Clinic June 7, 2013, Englewood, CO.

Luke Humphrey with Ketih & Kevin Hanson. Hansons Marathon Method. Velopress, Boulder, CO, 2012.

Ben Greenfield. Beyond Training. Victory Belt Publishing, Las Vegas, NV, 2014.

Matt Fitzgerald . Marathon Roadmap The Plant-Based Guide To Conquering Your First 26.2.

What’s Your Hydration and Nutrition Plan for Your Big Race?

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“Plans Are Nothing: Planning is Everything” – Dwight D. Eisenhower

Hello Runners,

So, you’ve put in some great training, and you have a goal, and maybe even a purpose higher than yourself, which can get your through some of the toughest portions of your marathon. The weather on your race day is ideal. You’re able to run without any injuries. But, you could still fail to achieve your goal on race day due to dehydration or fatigue caused by burning up all your available carbohydrates.

Therefore, you need a plan before and during your event to make sure you stay as hydrated as possible, and don’t run out of available carbohydrates. Basically, we don’t have enough available carbohydrates in our body to complete a marathon. We need to take on additional carbohydrates during our event.

Where so many runners fail on race day is not having a game plan for how they are going to hydrate and fuel themselves during their event, or they have a game plan ahead of time, but don’t follow through. Also, many runners rely on what’s handed out at the event without practicing with it ahead of time (sports drinks, gels, etc.), and sometimes found out the hard way that what’s handed out is not best for them.

So, what’s your hydration and nutrition strategy for your event? How often will you drink? Will you use a sports drink? If not, what will you eat, so that you have enough energy to finish your marathon? Hopefully, you have been practicing your strategy during your training and have a plan you will use during your big race.

Practice Hydration and Nutrition (Fuel) Strategy During Your Long Runs

Your long training runs are a great time to practice hydration (how often and how much you will drink) and figure out what you will use for fuel during your event, as well as when you will consume this. There are lots of options available as far as fuel, including sports drinks, gels, beans, chews, real food, etc. You may want to practice what will be handed out at your event, that way if it works for you, then you don’t have to carry your own fuel.

Most likely your event won’t have these, but here are some fuel options you might try: SuperStarch by UCAN, Infinit-E by Millenium, and Vitargo. Some other options which are lower in calories, but provide electrolytes include Osmo Nutrition and Skratch Labs. Ideally, practice under similar conditions that you will experience during your event.

The Week Before Your Event

Before I talk more about your hydration and fueling strategy during your event, I will mention what you should do both the week of and the day before your event. After all, you want to start out with a full tank, otherwise, you will be trying to play catch up during your event, and that won’t work and will negatively impact your performance.

So, be sure to hydrate well throughout the week before, and especially the day before your event. Limit alcohol consumption during that week, as well, especially the day before your event. At a minimum you should be consuming half your body weight in ounces of water each day. For example, if you weigh 150 pounds, you should consume at least 75 ounces of water per day.

During the week of the event, this is the time to load up on carbohydrates, including grains, starchy vegetables, and fruits (such as blueberries). You should also be consuming proteins including nuts, seeds, beans, tempeh, fish, other meats, if you normally eat them. Fats are the nutrient you need least during the week of your event.

It is popular for events to have pasta dinners the night before an event. This is more traditional than beneficial. This pasta will really not help you during your event. In fact, you may want to have a salad with some nuts or a small bowl of pasta or white rice for dinner, and eat a larger meal for lunch or in the early afternoon. This larger meal should consist primarily of easily-digestible carbohydrates (such as white rice and white pasta), with some protein, and little fat. Avoid spicy foods and any new foods. Beware of eating a lot of fiber the day before an event and FODMAP foods (beans, onions, garlic, dried fruit, apples, pears, etc.), which can cause gas and bloating.

During Your Event

Don’t consume anything on race day that you haven’t practiced with during your training. Several years ago, when I was living in Maryland, I made an annual habit of running the Baltimore half-marathon. I really enjoyed that event and the crowd support throughout much of the event was great! Within the last few miles of the event there were people who traditionally would hand out gummy bears. Boy, was it tempting! Many people indulged. I passed and recommend you do the same. If you want gummy bears, have them after the race.

General guidelines for hydration

Water loss through sweat of as little as 2% can negatively affect performance, if fluids aren’t replaced because of:

  • Decreased blood volume resulting in the heart having to work harder
  • Increased usage of carbohydrates which can lead to fatigue happening sooner
  • Ability to dissipate heat is reduced
  • Imbalance of electrolytes which can cause cramping and weakness
  • Possible cognitive impairment

Keep in mind this will depend on your sweat rate and the conditions of your event. If you sweat profusely you will likely need to include electrolytes as well. In general you should consume 250 to 500 mg of electrolytes per hour. See previous post. During your event drink 3-8 ounces of fluids every 15-20 minutes (a gulp is ~ one ounce), basically drink to thirst.

General guidelines for nutrition

The main cause of fatigue in those participating in endurance events is running out of available carbohydrates in the body. You will need to determine if you will use fluids or solids for your carbohydrate fuel, and which you will use. If using solids, you may want to wash these down with water, don’t use a sports drink to wash them down. During your event, make sure you using something that doesn’t bother your stomach, contains little or no fiber and that you consume 30-60 grams of carbohydrate (~120-160 calories) every hour. For events lasting 4 hours or longer you may want to consume ~60 grams/hour.

Other Considerations

Keep in mind that you may need to carry your own fuel, whether it’s a sports drink or solid, during your event. This has been pretty much the case for me in every marathon I’ve run. I don’t do well with the sports drinks typically handed out at events.

Even if you have a strategy, you may need to develop a plan B and possibly plan C. What if you encounter heat and humidity during your event? What if they run out of sports drink or water at an aid station? (This happened at the Chicago marathon several years ago).

You should be well-hydrated before the start of your event. You should have eaten a well-balanced diet on the day before your event to ensure that carbohydrate stores in the body are maximized. Also, you should start calorie and fluid replacement early in your event.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

P.S. If you know anyone who might benefit from this email, please share this with them. Also, if this was beneficial, please “Like” our page. Thank you.

References

Bob Seebohar “Triathlon Nutritional Strategies” USA Triathlon Level I Coaching Certification Clinic June 7, 2013, Englewood, CO.

Luke Humphrey with Ketih & Kevin Hanson. Hansons Marathon Method. Velopress, Boulder, CO, 2012.

Ben Greenfield. Beyond Training. Victory Belt Publishing, Las Vegas, NV, 2014.

Matt Fitzgerald . Marathon Roadmap The Plant-Based Guide To Conquering Your First 26.2.

Importance of Running For A Higher Purpose To Help You Through Challenges During Your Training and Event

your-purpose-in-life-is-to-find-your-purpose-and-give-your-whole-heart-and-soul-to-it

“The deepest of all human needs in the need for meaning and purpose in life and work.” – Brian Tracy

Hello Runners,

Every once in a while we hear stories of people performing amazing feats of strength to pick up a car to rescue someone trapped underneath. How are people able to do so, and can you use this to help you overcome significant challenges in your training and event?

In 2011, Jennifer Pharr Davis set out to break the record for hiking the Appalachian Trail (2185 miles from Mount Katahdin in Maine to Springer Mountain in Georgia) in less than 50 days. At that time, the overall record was 47 ½ days held by several competitive male athletes who specialized in ultra-endurance events. However, 12 days in, and with 1650 miles to go, Pharr Davis was broken-down, depleted, and ready to give up. Shin splints and diarrhea had been wreaking havoc with her body for the past 4 days. Negative thoughts and fear were poisoning her mind. She was off the pace she needed and was ready to give up. She approached a juncture on New Hampshire roads where she was meeting her husband, Brew. She told him she was quitting. However, Brew reminded her that he had given up so much of himself to support her on this hike, and that achieving the record was a team effort.

At that point, she realized that the hike was more than about her and the record. Instead, she focused on the love of her husband, being in nature, and the love of her god. Her psychological stress removed, Pharr Davis pushed through her physical discomfort and broke the record by 26 hours. She had harnessed the power of purpose to overcome her fears and doubts. She had focused on something beyond herself and reflected on her core values, allowing her to courageously confront challenges and improve her performance.

We have the ability to do the same. Research by Dr. Victor Stretcher has shown that when people focus on a self-transcending purpose, or a purpose greater than themselves, they become capable of more than they ever thought was possible. Stretcher believes that this is due to ego minimization, which is important because the ego’s job is to protect our “self” and to shut down and flee when faced with threats. When we transcend our “self” and minimize our ego, we can override the fears, anxieties, and physiological protective mechanisms that often hold us back from achieving major breakthroughs.

Also, Dr. Tim Noakes noticed that runners were able to speed up during the final stretch of a race when the end was in sight and questioned why so many runners, seemingly overwhelmed by fatigue, were able to do so. Through his research, Noakes showed that physical fatigue occurs not in the body, but in the brain. It’s not the muscles that wear out, rather, it’s the brain that shuts them down even though they have more to give. This shut down is an innately programmed way of protecting ourselves. Basically, our brain intervenes and creates a perception of failure before we actually harm ourselves. Noakes suggests the brain is our “central governor” of fatigue and that our “ego” shuts us down when confronted by fear or threat. In other words, we are hardwired to retreat when the going gets tough. However, Noakes says it is possible to override the central governor with transcending purpose, such as someone saving another person trapped under a car by lifting the car, or Jennifer Pharr Davis’ performance in breaking the Appalachian Trail record.

Every year people with little or no running experience join organizations like Team in Training to complete their first marathon in support of those with cancer and other diseases. Many of these people have run no more than a 5k in their life, if even that. Another challenge these runners experience is that the training programs used by these organizations often include minimal mileage during the week, thus making the weekend long runs much more difficult. However, many of these runners still push through because they are running for something bigger than themselves. In the case of Team in Training it’s for those with leukemia and lymphoma.  Others run for loved ones who have been stricken with other life-ending diseases, including other forms of cancer.

So, what’s the higher purpose that you are running for?

The idea of transcending yourself can be applied to other areas of your life as well, such as your work.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

P.S. If you know anyone who might benefit from this email, please share this post with them. Also, if this was beneficial, please “Like” our page. Thank you.

References

Peak Performance. Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness. Rodale, Inc. New York, 2017.

Tim Noakes. “Time to Move Beyond a Brainless Exercise Physiology: The Evidence for Complete Regulation of Human Exercise Performance.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 36, no. 1 (February 2011): 23-35

Tim Noakes. “J. B. Wolffe Memorial Lecture. Challenging beliefs: ex. Africa semper aliquid novi,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 29 no. 5 (May 1997): S71-S90.

Overcoming Challenging Runs with Mindfulness and How You Develop Your Mindfulness Muscle

marathon1

“Challenges are what make life interesting and overcoming them is what makes life meaningful.” – Joshua J. Marine

Hello Runners,

Recently I’ve had some really challenging runs including a 20-miler. Certainly the further we get into marathon training, the more challenging the workouts can be, whether it’s a 20 mile run or a tempo or marathon goal pace run for a sustained period of time.

In these situations, as well as those in other areas of our life which require us to push ourselves to help us grow as a person, we need to get uncomfortable being uncomfortable. Obviously, easier said than done. This is something that elite runners are able to do quite well, and there are probably aspects in your own life in which you do this well. Maybe it’s with your job and/or juggling multiple responsibilities. Maybe it’s giving an important presentation or networking.

As Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness share in Peak Performance, when you begin to feel uncomfortable during a tough workout or event it can help to have a conversation with yourself such as, “This is starting to hurt now. It should. I’m running hard. But I am separate from this pain. It is going to be okay.”

This touches upon the importance of being mindful and developing mindful fitness, which you can apply to other aspects of your life such as giving a presentation, dealing with a challenging client, dealing with a challenging child, etc.

By being more mindful, you create the space for you to choose how you respond to stress, instead of having an automatic response to stress. While you are immersed in the challenge, you can use mindfulness to remain calm. After a challenge, mindfulness lets you choose to turn off stress and transition to a more restful state.

Developing mindfulness is like developing a muscle. One great way to do so is through mindful meditation, which I do for a few minutes each day, typically first thing in the morning and before I go to bed.

Research studies have shown mindful meditation to be extremely helpful in overcoming stress in military personal, and it can help athletes in all sports manage stress, improve focus, and enhance performance.

To be mindful is to be aware of your thoughts and actions in the moment, without judging yourself and without being distracted by stressful experiences from the past or stressful anticipation of the future.

Guidelines for Mindful Meditation:

  • Choose a time to meditate when other distractions are minimal. A great time might be first thing in the morning or before going to bed. Another option might be during your lunch break.
  • Find a quiet, comfortable place. Sit in a chair or on the floor with your head, neck, and back straight but not stiff
  • Set a timer so that you are not distracted by thoughts about the passage of time
  • Begin breathing deeply, in and out through the nose
  • Allow your breath to settle back into its natural rhythm and focus on nothing but the sensation of breathing, noticing the rise and fall of the abdomen with each breath; if thoughts arise, notice them and don’t suppress them. Acknowledge your thoughts and use your breath as an anchor. You might visualize your thoughts as puffy white clouds and watch them disappear across the sky. Direct your focus back to the sensation of your breath.
  • As you conclude your meditation session, sit for a minute or two, become aware of where you are and then gradually get up.
  • Meditation can be a challenge itself because our mind can be super active and it can be difficult to quiet the mind. So, start with one minute and gradually increase the duration, adding 30-45 seconds every few days.
  • Consistency is important in building your mindful muscle, just like building any other muscle. Along those lines frequency of meditation is more important than duration.
  • Apply your growing mindfulness abilities in everyday life and have calm conversations with yourself during stressful periods
  • Realize when you want to “turn it off” and then choose to leave stress behind. Pausing to take a few deep breaths helps to activate the brain’s command and control center, instead of allowing the portion of the brain that responds automatically to take over.

You can also use guided meditation to develop mindfulness. This may be easier, especially if you are just starting out. Some apps which will guide you include Insight Timer, Headspace, and Pranayama. (Disclaimer: I have no associations with Insight Timer, Headspace, or Pranayama.)

So, incorporate a few minutes of mindful meditation into your day and strengthen your mindfulness muscle to help your performance during difficult training runs and your next event.

Please let me know if you have any questions, or if I can be of help in any way.

Your friend and coach,

Brian

P.S. If you know anyone who might benefit from this post, please share this with them. Also, if this was beneficial, please “Like” our page. Thank you.

 

References

Peak Performance. Brad Stulberg and Steve Magness. Rodale, Inc. New York, 2017.

Beyond Training. Ben Greenfield. Victory Belt Publishing  2014.

Jha AP, Stanley EA, Kiyonaga A, Wong L, Gelfand L. Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):54-64.

Jha AP, Morrison AB, Dainer-Best J, Parker S, Rostrup N, Stanley EA. Minds “at attention”: mindfulness training curbs attentional lapses in military cohorts. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 11;10(2)

Solberg EE, Berglund KA, Engen O, Ekeberg O, Loeb M. The effect of meditation on shooting performance. Br J Sports Med. 1996 Dec;30(4):342-6.

Zanesco AP, Denkova E, Rogers SL, MacNulty WK, Jha AP. Mindfulness training as cognitive training in high-demand cohorts: An initial study in elite military servicemembers. Prog Brain Res. 2019;244:323-354.

Gaëlle Desbordes, Lobsang T. Negi, Thaddeus W. W. Pace, B. Alan Wallace, Charles L. Raison and Eric L. Schwartz. Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Front. Hum. Neurosci., 01 November 2012.

Daphne M. Davis and Jeffrey A. Hayes. What are the benefits of mindfulness, July/August 2012, Vol 43, No. 7

Lillian A. De Petrillo, Keith A. Kaufman, Carol R. Glass, and Diane B. Arnkoff.  Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, Volume 3: Issue 4, Pages: 357–376.

Rachel W. Thompson, Keith A. Kaufman, Lilian A. De Petrillo, Carol R. Glass, and Diane B. Arnkoff. One Year Follow-Up of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE) With Archers, Golfers, and Runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, Volume 5: Issue 2, Pages: 99–116.

Lucia Bühlmayer, Daniel Birrer, Philipp Röthlin, Oliver Faude, Lars Donath. Effects of Mindfulness Practice on Performance-Relevant Parameters and Performance Outcomes in Sports: A Meta-Analytical Review. Sports Medicine, November 2017, Volume 47, Issue 11, pp 2309–2321.